Intervention Journal

November 2010 - Volume 8 - Issue 3

From the editor
Authors:
Ventevogel, Peter

ARTICLES

How qualitative information helped to shape quantitative research instruments in Rwanda
Authors:
Verduin, Femke; Scholte, Willem F; Rutayisire, Theoneste; Richters, Annemiek

FIELD REPORTS

Psychological first aid pilot: Haiti emergency response
Authors:
Schafer, Alison; Snider, Leslie; van Ommeren, Mark
Staff support in Haiti
Authors:
Gray, Amber

REFLECTIONS, COMMENTS, LETTERS

REVIEWS

SUMMARIES

Summaries in Arabic
Authors:
Editors
Résumés en Français
Authors:
Editors
Summaries in Russian
Authors:
Editors
Summaries in Sinhala
Authors:
Editors
Resumenes en Español
Authors:
Editors
Summaries in Tamil
Authors:
Editors

From the editor

PDF
Authors:
Ventevogel, Peter

ARTICLES

Refugee women survivors of war related sexualised violence: a multicultural framework for service provision in resettlement countries

This paper explores the question of redressing war related sexualised violence, often referred to as war rape, with refugee women in resettlement contexts using a Canadian case example. The first part of the paper uses theory and research to frame sexualised violence as a tool of war whose practice and impact are shaped by gender and cultural factors. This section highlights how, for survivors, the combination of psychological trauma and socio-cultural factors in post migration environments can create barriers for seeking help, social support, as well as vulnerability to further victimisation and mental health difficulties. The second section provides a case example of a community based mental health initiative in Canada for survivors of war related sexualised violence. The case explores the use of a psychosocial framework that integrates cultural competency, gender perspectives, and community advocacy. Challenges and opportunities of service provision in resettlement contexts are discussed, and recommendations are provided for multicultural mental health practice that is collaborative, community oriented, and sensitive to trauma survivors' needs.

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Authors:
Yohani, Sophie C.; Hagen, Kristine T.

Screening and brief intervention for high-risk alcohol use in Mae La refugee camp, Thailand: a pilot project on the feasibility of training and implementation

Many populations that are displaced by conflict experience health and social problems connected to alcohol use. Screening for high-risk alcohol use and brief intervention is a core public health strategy for decreasing the harm related to alcohol use. Experience among populations displaced by conflict is, however, limited. The authors conducted a pilot project in a long standing Burmese refugee camp in Thailand, using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screening instrument. The intervention was piloted through the existing primary health care system. Screening and brief intervention for high-risk alcohol use was feasible in this refugee camp setting. More work is required to assess the effectiveness of this intervention in settings of forced displacement, as well as the feasibility of incorporating such interventions into community mobilisation strategies and measures, addressing the drinking environment more generally.

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Authors:
Ezard, Nadine; Debakre, Annabel; Catillon, Raphaële

How qualitative information helped to shape quantitative research instruments in Rwanda

Rwanda experienced extreme violence and genocide during a three month period starting in April 1994. In the northern regions, there had been ongoing violence since 1990. Many inhabitants still suffer emotionally from the consequences of this era. We performed a quantitative study to measure the effectiveness of sociotherapy; a community based psychosocial intervention carried out in northern Rwanda. This article describes qualitative research methods used to enable and improve this quantitative study, and more specifically how the authors adapted and validated three main outcome measures for use within the local context. Psychological wellbeing was measured by use of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), social functioning by use of a locally designed questionnaire, and social capital by use of a short, adapted version of the Social Capital Assessment Tool (Short A-SCAT).

The collection of context related, qualitative information was essential to create applicable and context appropriate instruments. The authors' experiences underline that for any mental health or psychosocial study, a substantial contribution from qualitative research is essential. In spite of the authors' efforts, it still proved to be very difficult to quantitatively assess issues related to social relations.

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Authors:
Verduin, Femke; Scholte, Willem F; Rutayisire, Theoneste; Richters, Annemiek

FIELD REPORTS

Psychological first aid pilot: Haiti emergency response

Psychological first aid (PFA) is an approach for providing basic psychological support to people in acute distress. It is now viewed as one of the primary early psychosocial interventions during, or immediately following, a crisis. World Vision International, War Trauma Foundation and World Health Organisation have developed a PFA guide for low and middle income countries (LAMIC) following acute emergencies. After the Haiti earthquake, World Vision International (WVI) undertook a pilot orientation to test the draft PFA guide and to provide some basic information on PFA for those assisting in an acute emergency. This paper documents lessons learned from the pilot within the Haiti context, including the use of brief PFA materials. The staff found PFA to be a useful, empowering approach to providing psychosocial support to people affected by the earthquake. One key lesson was that the full version of the draft PFA guide could serve as a comprehensive model (adapted to context), while a shorter version can be used as a generic resource in the immediate aftermath of an emergency. The draft PFA materials designed for LAMIC show promise as a resource for Haiti, and potentially other humanitarian contexts in the future.

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Authors:
Schafer, Alison; Snider, Leslie; van Ommeren, Mark

Staff support in Haiti

The earthquake in January 2010 that destroyed Port au Prince, Haiti, has been described as the most devastating humanitarian disaster on record. The author, a mental health professional and a dance movement therapist with more than 12 years working experience in Haiti, encountered numerous anecdotal reports of physical illness and psychological distress amongst rescue and recovery workers, humanitarian aid workers, and others. This field report describes a staff support programme in Haiti that consisted of three phases: 1) psychological first aid; 2) needs and resource assessment and training of a local staff support team; and 3) team building, ongoing training and mentoring. While staff support has been ‘on our radar’ for 20 years, the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake may be a pivotal event in terms of putting the issue front and centre for both local nongovernmental organisations and international nongovernmental organisations. The Haitian experience provides important lessons for the future of staff support in humanitarian situations. The author argues that staff support needs to be an integral part of all international humanitarian programming.

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Authors:
Gray, Amber

The Department of Health response to the Maguindanao massacre in the Philippines

In the aftermath of election related violence in an area of armed conflict in the Philippines, the Philippine Department of Health deployed a psychosocial team to the area to carry out psychosocial interventions. The main intervention was an activity called Psychosocial Processing (PSP) that is briefly described and discussed in this field report.

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Authors:
Law, Ronald

Perspectives on alcohol and substance abuse in refugee settings: lessons from the field

In refugee settings, alcohol and other psychoactive substances can potentiate many underlying problems and contribute to the erosion of social relations and community structure. Interventions to minimise harmful use of alcohol and other psychoactive substances can lead to positive changes, but must be customised to the specific needs of each setting. Rapid assessments with appropriate tools, understanding the situation, partnership with workers and refugees, as well as inclusive approaches are all essential. Based on field experience in two refugee camps, these elements are discussed and recommendations are proposed for integrated interventions for alcohol and psychoactive substances.

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Authors:
Streel, Emmanuel; Schilperoord, Marian

REFLECTIONS, COMMENTS, LETTERS

The hunting of the snark: detecting and managing abusers of alcohol and other drugs in refugee camps – a commentary on Ezard et al. and Streel & Schilperoord

The abuse of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) is evidently a significant, but often neglected, problem in refugee camps. There are some differences compared with AOD problems in developed countries (notably fewer affected women), but also many similarities. Alcohol is the major problem in terms of behaviour and is often manufactured and traded by refugees themselves. Not all AOD users are AOD abusers, but identifying abusers may be worth the effort if it can be shown to reduce, rather than increase, the healthcare workload. If staff can be engaged, there are several techniques for engaging and managing abusers. The nonspecific effects of interventions may be considerable.

PDF
Authors:
Brewer, Colin

REVIEWS

Christian Pross, Verletzte Helfer: Umgang mit dem Trauma: Risiken und Möglichkeiten such zoo schützen. Leben Lernen - Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2009. 288p. ISBN: 978-3-608-89090-7

PDF
Authors:
Kellermann, Nathan P. F.

SUMMARIES

Summaries in Arabic

PDF
Authors:
Editors

Résumés en Français

PDF
Authors:
Editors

Summaries in Russian

PDF
Authors:
Editors

Summaries in Sinhala

PDF
Authors:
Editors

Resumenes en Español

PDF
Authors:
Editors

Summaries in Tamil

PDF
Authors:
Editors